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Vol.46 No.3 May 2018
46(3) 1-1, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.3) 1-1, 2018
Aims and Scope
Bonding Properties and Resin Exudation Characteristics of Pitch Pine
노정관 Jeongkwan Roh , 김윤근 Yun Geun Kim
46(3) 213-220, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.213 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 213-220, 2018
In order to use Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Miller) as the material of the structural glued laminated timber, the effect of the amount of resin exudation due to storage time after the planning and the knot of the lamina were evaluated on the bonding properties of the glued board with resorcinol resin. For Pitch pine that was dried at high temperature (120～95 ℃) and low temperature (65～50 ℃), the flat sawn(tangential section) showed higher amount of resin exudation than the quarter sawn(radial section). And the low temperature drying wood showed higher resin exudation than the high temperature drying wood. The low and high temperature drying wood showed the highest amount of resin exudation on the 3rd day and 7th day, respectively and they were gradually decreased. However, there were no significant differences from 15 to 90 days. Adhesion performances were low until 2~3 days with high exudation of resin, but there were no significant differences after 15 days. Both high temperature and low temperature drying woods satisfied the Korean standard regardless of the storage time. The adhesive strengths of the laminating parts including knots were higher than those of KS criteria, but the wood failures were not satisfied the KS standard. Adhesive performances according to the laminating combinations (quarter sawn + quarter sawn, flat sawn + flat sawn, quarter sawn + flat sawn) were better than those of KS criteria in all laminating combinations in both high temperature and low temperature drying woods.
Studies on Photoprotection of Walnut Veneer Exposed to UV Light
박세영 Se-yeong Park , 홍창영 Chang-young Hong , 김선홍 Seon-hong Kim , 최준호 June-ho Choi , 이효진 Hyo-jin Lee , 최인규 In-gyu Choi
46(3) 221-230, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.221 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 221-230, 2018
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of several chemical treatments to prevent photodegradation of wood veneer by external UV (Ultraviolet) light. Of woods, walnut veneer is selected as a raw material for this study since it is known as a luxurious wood with dark color giving an esthetic effect. Alcohol-benzene, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution were used for investigate the effect on color stabilization. Despite the removal of the extractive compounds, which is known as a discoloration component, a significant color change of walnut wood veneer was observed. Meanwhile, the veneers treated by 20 and 30% H2O2 solution at 75℃ for 1 h also showed the no positive effect of color stability exposed to UV light although they have a bleaching effect on wood veneer. Besides, it was difficult to maintain the original color of walnut veneer due to the elution of the extractive compounds. On the other hands, the veneer treated by NaClO solution indicated the good performance on color stability despite of the intensive UV light test. However, when the concentration exceeds 3%, surface roughness and fiber damage occurred simultaneously. Therefore, the walnut species should be treated with proper concentration when sodium hypochlorite is applied to the veneer.
Anatomical Characteristics of Korean Phyllostachys pubescens by Age
전우석 Woo-seok Jeon , 변희섭 Hee-seop Byeon , 김남훈 Nam-hun Kim
46(3) 231-240, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.231 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 231-240, 2018
Bamboo is one of the major biomass resources that have many advantages such as fast growing, easy cultivation, short rotation, and a relatively lower price. In this study, the anatomical characteristics of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) by age from one-year-old to five-year-old were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Also, the crystalline properties such as relative crystallinity and crystallite width were investigated by an X-ray diffraction method. In one-year-old bamboo xylem, a few vascular bundles showed missing bundle sheath in near the intercellular space. Moreover, one-year-old bamboo had the shortest fiber length and the smallest values in vessel diameter, width of vascular bundle, and thickness of inner layer. One-year-old bamboo also showed the smallest values in the crystallinity and crystallite width. Near epidermis samples had longer fiber length and greater vascular bundle spacing than near pith samples. Relative crystallinity and crystallite width near the epidermis were also higher than near the pith. This study revealed significant differences in qualitative and quantitative anatomical characteristics between one-year-old and two-year- or more old Moso bamboos. It is concluded that the structural differences by bamboo age can be used to differentiate the characteristics of juvenile and mature bamboo.
Dating Wooden Artifacts Excavated at Imdang-dong Site, Gyeongsan, Korea and Interpreting the Paleoenvironment according to the Wood Identification
이광희 Kwang-hee Lee , 서정욱 Jeong-wook Seo , 한규성 Gyu-seong Han
46(3) 241-252, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.241 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 241-252, 2018
It was estimated that the Imdang-dong site of Gyungsan was constructed in the 2nd to 4th century based on excavated layers and artifacts. This study was carried out to verify the result using the dendrochronological analysis of six wooden pillars excavated at the site. As a result, it was proven that 6 specimens were not cut at the same age because their tree-ring chronologies were not synchronized each other. And more, it was reconfirmed in wiggle matching dating as confirming two of them were dated to A.D. 94-135 and A.D. 224-289, respectively. It was coincided with the above-mentioned estimated age. In wood identification, most of them were identified as Hovenia dulcis Thunb., Tilia spp., Ulmus spp. which grow usually under cool environment. Based on the result, we could conclude that the climate at that time was cooler than the present.
Development of Coloring Method of Didecyldimethylammonium Chloride (DDAC) in Wood Treated with Alkaline Copper Quat (ACQ) Preservative
이종신 Jong Shin Lee , 최광식 Gwang Sik Choi
46(3) 253-259, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.253 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 253-259, 2018
To determine the depth of preservative penetration in ACQ treated wood, the degree of penetration of Cu was measured. In this study, we developed a DDAC coloring method to investigate the penetration depth of DDAC, which is one of the active ingredient of ACQ, into wood. The following conclusions were obtained. The DDAC component reacts with a 2′, 7′-dichlorofluorescein indicator and results in a deep orange color. This orange coloring reaction appears not only in DDAC solutions but also in ACQ treated wood tissues in which DDAC is present. It is possible to visually verify that DDAC has better wood penetration than Cu in the spruce, which is an refractory wood species, by the DDAC coloring method developed this study. In addition to the results, it is necessary to investigate the difference in penetration of Cu and DDAC for other wood species with poor preservative penetration.
Interpretation of Wood Processing Method by Tool Trace Analysis for Wooden Artifacts Excavated from Imdang-dong Site, Gyeongsan, Korea
이광희 Kwang-hee Lee , 한규성 Gyu-seong Han
46(3) 260-269, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.260 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 260-269, 2018
The purpose of this study is to interpretate the tools and the method of making wooden artifacts by analyzing the trace of tools on the surface of wooden artifacts estimated to be from the 2nd to the 4th century. As a result of analyzing the trace of tools on the surface of 97 items of wood artifacts, it was confirmed that various tools such as rhizome, chisel, claw, hand knife and ax were used to make these artifacts. Particularly, the marks of the turning knife and the turning lathe were confirmed, and it was found that the method of turning operation was used at this time. In addition, it was confirmed that both the Nunjil (tangential process) and the Seonjil (longitudinal process) were used to produce the wooden container artifacts by turning operation. It observes that proper processing method operation was applied to manufacture wooden container artifact depending on its form and intended use.
Wood Species Identification of Documentary Woodblocks of Songok Clan of the Milseong Park, Gyeongju, Korea
엄유정 Yu-jeong Eom , 박병대 Byung-dae Park
46(3) 270-277, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.270 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 270-277, 2018
This study was conducted to identify wood species of two printing woodblocks either from the Park clan’s documentary or Ji-dang documentary of Songok clan of the Milseong Park, Songok, Gyeongju, Korea. Eighty-eight woodblocks out of the total 282 woodblocks were randomly selected to compare anatomical features for the identification of wood species, using a light microscope. As a result, seven wood species were identified, and all of them were diffuse-porous hardwood species. The most significant portion, i.e., 39.8% of wood species was Carpinus laxiflora Blume. Then, Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai, Acer mono Maxim, Prunus sargentii Rehder, Tilia amurensis Rupr, Diospyros kaki Thunb, and Betula costata Trautv was 25.0%, 15.9%, 10.2%, 3.4%, 3.4% and 2.3%, respectively, indicating that all diffuse-porous hardwood species had been used for the woodblocks. It was believed that diffuse-porous hardwoods had been used because they provided an easy of engraving complex Chinese letters, of acquiring these wood species in Gyeongju areas, and a high resistance to repeated printing.
Study on Species Identification for Pungnammun Gate (Treasure 308) in Jeonju, Korea
박정혜 Jung Hae Park , 오정은 Jeong Eun Oh , 황인선 In Sun Hwang , 장한울 Han Ul Jang , 최재완 Jae Wan Choi , 김수철 Soo Chul Kim
46(3) 278-284, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.3.278 JANT Vol.46(No.3) 278-284, 2018
This study is for species identification for each structure member such as Pillar, Bo, Changbang, Dori, Jangyeo, Judu, Donjaju, Chunyeo, Guitle, and Jongdae, of Pungnammun Gate (Treasure 308). Jeonju is the birthplace of Joseon Dynasty and Pungnammun Gate was the southern gate of old Jeonjueupseong which was walled town. Provincial Governor of Koryeo Dynasty, Yu Gyeong Choi built Jeonjubuseong and four gates at all cardinal points in 1388. And the gate was burnt down by Jeongyujaeran (war with Japan in 1597). It was rebuilt by King Yeongjo (Joseon Dynasty) in 1734 and renamed ‘Pungnammun’ after 34 years. It was designated for Treasure 308 for its unique style of architecture and historic values in 1963. In this study, all of wooden structure members were Pinus spp.. This result was matched for the result of major species for wooden building of late Joseon Dynasty. It can be used to complete database for architecture of Castle’s Gate and help for restoration of cultural heritage in the future.
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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