Print ISSN: 1017-0715
Online ISSN: 2233-7180
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Vol.46 No.1 on January 2018
46(1) 1-1, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 1-1, 2018
Aims and Scope
Analysis of Lacquer and CNSL Using Infrared Spectrometer and Pyrolysis-GC/MS
최재완 Jaewan Choi , 김수철 Soo-chul Kim
46(1) 1-9, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 1-9, 2018
Nowadays, synthetic resin varnish such as cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is being used as well as traditional lacquer. The code of ethics states that material must be identical to the original when preserving cultural heritage. Therefore, lacquer should be used. However, problem is that even experts have difficulties differentiating lacquer and CNSL as they have similar components. Therefore, this study was carried out to identify the difference between lacquer and CNSL using IR and Py-GC/MS. As a result of IR, in lacquer, 720 cm-1 peak was detected and in CNSL, 750 cm-1, 720 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 peaks were detected. The results of Py-GC/MS detect benzene compounds and alkyl chains for both varnishes. However, hexanoic acid was detected from CNSL but not lacquer. Using these analytical methods, the differences between lacquer and CNSL can be identified on the scene. This is expected to be applied to the authentic conservation and restoration of lacquerware.
Development of a Kiln Dry Schedule for Lindera erythrocarpa Grown in Hongsung, Chungnam Province, Korea
강춘원 Chun-won Kang , 강호양 Ho-yang Kang
46(1) 10-16, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 10-16, 2018
Lindera erythrocarpa is a less utilized species in Korea although that it has straight stem and it grows up to 40 cm in diameter. A proper kiln-dry schedule is required in advance to utilize an unknown species. Terazwa’s quick oven-dry method was used to find it and which was confirmed by drying 25 mm thick boards in a kiln. The average green moisture content and the average green specific gravity of Lindera erythrocarpa are 72.3% and 0.53, respectively. Prospective kiln-drying conditions obtained by Terazwa’s quick oven-dry method are a initial dry-bulb temperature of 50℃, a initial wet-bulb depression of 4℃ and a final dry-bulb temperature of 75℃, which are in a good agreement with USDA FPL kiln-dry schedule of T5-D4. 25 mm thick boards dried in a kiln with T5-D4 kiln-dry schedule did not have any severe drying defects such as honycombing and warping. A severer kiln-dry schedule of T8-C5 was developed and applied to another kiln-drying run to confirm it.
Preparation of Nanoporous Activated Carbon with Sulfuric Acid Lignin and Its Application as a Biosorbent
황혜원 Hyewon Hwang , 최준원 Joon Weon Choi
46(1) 17-28, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 17-28, 2018
In this study, catalytic activation using sulfuric acid lignin (SAL), the condensed solid by-product from saccharification process, with potassium hydroxide at 750℃ for 1 h in order to investigate its potential to nanoporous carbon In this study, catalytic activation using sulfuric acid lignin (SAL), the condensed solid by-product from saccharification process, with potassium hydroxide at 750℃ for 1 h in order to investigate its potential to nanoporous carbon material. Comparison study was also conducted by production of activated carbon from coconut shell (CCNS), Pinus, and Avicel, and each activated carbon was characterized by chemical composition, Raman spectroscopy, SEM analysis, and BET analysis. The amount of solid residue after thermogravimetric analysis of biomass samples at the final temperature of 750℃ was SAL > CCNS > Pinus > Avicel, which was the same as the order of activated carbon yields after catalytic activation. Specifically, SAL-derived activated carbon showed the highest value of carbon content (91.0%) and Id/Ig peak ratio (4.2), indicating that amorphous large aromatic structure layer was formed with high carbon fixation. In addition, the largest changes was observed in SAL with the maximum BET specific surface area and pore volume of 2341 ㎡/g and 1.270 ㎤/g, respectively. Furthermore, the adsorption test for three kinds of organic pollutants (phenol, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and carbofuran) were conducted, and an excellent adsorption capacity more than 90 mg/g for all activated carbon was determined using 100 ppm of the standard solution. Therefore, SAL, a condensed structure, can be used not only as a nanoporous carbon material with high specific surface area but also as a biosorbent applied to a carbon filter for remediation of organic pollutants in future.
Anatomical Characteristics of Three Korean Bamboo Species
전우석 Woo-seok Jeon , 김윤기 Yun-ki Kim , 이주아 Ju-ah Lee , 김아란 Ah-ran Kim , Byantara Darsan , 정우양 Woo-yang Chung , 김남훈 Nam-hun Kim
46(1) 29-37, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 29-37, 2018
Bamboo is one of the major biomass resources in the world. To obtain valuable information for effective use of bamboo resources in Korea, the anatomical characteristics of the commercial Korean bamboo species (Phyllostachys pubescens, Phyllostachys nigra, and Phyllostachys bambusoides) were analyzed. The structures in bamboo culm were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Also the crystalline properties as relative crystallinity and crystallite width were measured by an X-ray diffraction method. The three Korean bamboo species had the vascular bundle type Ⅰ with tylosoid in intercellular space. In the outer part of culm, vascular bundles showed denser spacing than inner part. The fiber length in outer part samples of the three bamboo species showed longer than inner part samples. Furthermore, the fiber length showed a significant difference between inner part and outer part in three bamboo species, showing the longest fiber length in Phyllostachys bambusoides. Phyllostachys pubescens showed the greatest diameter in vessel and parenchyma on cross section. Parenchyma cells in Phyllostachys pubescens and Phyllostachys bambusoides showed similar length and width in both radial and tangential sections. The relative crystallinity and crystallite width in outer part samples of the three bamboo species showed higher values than those in inner part samples, with the greatest values from Phyllostachys bambusoides.
Antioxidant Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Different Parts of Rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa Thunb.)
김지우 Ji-woo Kim , 엄민 Min Um , 이재원 Jae-won Lee
46(1) 38-47, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 38-47, 2018
In this study, the antioxidant activities of hot water extracts of Rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa Thunb.) were evaluated. Total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total flavonoid compounds (TFC) were the highest in the leaf extracts at 107.29 mg/g and 24.28 mg/g, respectively. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) radical scavenging activity was in the following order: flower extract > leaf extract > seed extract > fruit extract. The IC50 values for DPPH and ABTS of the flower extract were 0.87 mg/mℓ and 0.27 mg/mℓ, respectively. The amount of gallic acid was higher in the flower (4.51 mg/g) and leaf extracts (0.97 mg/g) than in the other extracts.
Among the fraction (A-F) of each extract, antioxidant activity was the highest in the C fraction of flower extract. It is due to high TPC (3305.43 mg/g) and TFC (878.42 mg/g). Statistical analysis revealed a strong correlation between TFC (or TPC) and radical scavenging activity at p-value < 0.001. Collectively, these results suggest that the hot water extracts of rugosa rose have potential antioxidant effects, and can be used in food, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical industries.
Larch Pellets Fabricated with Coffee Waste and the Commercializing Potential of the Pellets
양인 In Yang , 한규성 Gyu Seong Han , 오승원 Seung Won Oh
46(1) 48-59, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 48-59, 2018
This study was conducted to suggest the effective management and recycling processes of coffee waste, which can be easily obtained from coffee shops and coffee-related products industries. Prior to the fabrication of pellets, the potential of coffee waste as a raw material of pellet was investigated through the examination of its chemical compositions and fuel characteristics. Major gradient included in coffee waste was holocellulose, followed by fat/oil and protein. Coffee waste contained a small quantity of ash (0.7%), such as calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium. Interestingly, coffee waste was easily dried probably due to its porous structure. Pellets fabricated with coffee waste and larch sawdust showed good fuel characteristics, such as moisture content, ash content, density and durability. The pellets exceed greatly the minimum requirements of 1st-grade wood pellet standard designated by National Institute of Forest Science (NIFOS). Particularly, the high calorific value of coffee waste showed the potential as a raw material of pellet. However, owing to high nitrogen and sulfur contents, coffee waste is like to be used as a raw material of wood pellet for combined heat and power plants equipped with a reduction system of NOx and SOx gases. On the other hand, 91 wt% larch sawdust and 9 wt% coffee waste are required to fabricate the 1st-grade wood pellets designated by NIFOS. Pellets fabricated with the conditions are estimated to have nitrogen content of 0.298% and sulfur content of 0.03%. Lastly, if amounts of coffee waste and sawdust in the production of wood pellets are adequately adjusted according to its purchasing price, the manufacturing cost of pellet can effectively be reduced. In addition, it is expected tp prepare the effective recycling process of waste and to relieve the environmental burden with the reduction of waste from the commercialization of coffee waste/larch pellets.
Effect of Carbonization Temperature on the Surface Temperature of Carbonized Board
오승원 Seung-won Oh , 황정우 Jung-woo Hwang , 박상범 Sang Bum Park
46(1) 60-66, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 60-66, 2018
For new use development of carbonized board, we investigated the effect of carbonization temperature on the surface temperature of carbonized board manufactured from a plywood, particle board, MDF, and wood of Fraxinus rhynchophylla at different carbonization temperature (400℃∼1100℃). The surface temperature of carbonized board precipitously increased until 12 minutes elapsed, after smoothly increased and thereafter which were stable after 20 minutes. The higher carbonization temperature increased density of carbonized board and surface temperature of carbonized board so that density is considered to influence surface temperature change. Moreover, carbonized boards kept heat for a long time because the descent velocity of carbonized boards’ surface temperature was slower than that of heater’s.
Study on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Particleboard and Oriented Strandboard Manufactured by Tulliptree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.)
서준원 Jun Won Seo , 강길우 Gil Woo Gang , 조건희 Gun Hee Jo , 박헌 Heon Park
46(1) 67-72, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.1) 67-72, 2018
This study was conducted to investigate a potential of Yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) as a raw material for the manufacturing of particleboard (PB) and oriented strandboard (OSB). PB panels were prepared at the parameters of 0.7 g/㎤ density, 15 mm thickness, three-layer, E1 grade urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, emulsion wax, and hardener. OSB panels were manufactured with a density of 0.65 g/㎤, thickness of 10 mm, and E1 grade of UF resin. Particle size of the face layer of PB was 20∼80 mesh with 7∼9% moisture content (MC), while that of core-layer was 3∼20 mesh with 3∼5% MC, which was similar to the production condition of commercial PB. As a result, the manufactured PB panels with 15.8 mm thickness, 0.7 g/㎤ density, and 5.8% MC satisfied the requirement of bending strength of 15 type PB of Korean Industrial Standard (KS F 3104). Both internal bonding (IB) strength and surface screw withdrawal resistance also satisfied the requirement of 18 type PB of the standard. But, the edge screw withdrawal resistance satisfied the requirement of 15 type PB of the standard. These differences in properties could be due to the slenderness ratio of raw particles. In case of OSB panels with 10.7 mm thickness, 0.68 g/㎤ density, and 5.8% MC satisfied all the requirements of bending strength, screw withdrawal resistance, and IB strength of 18 type PB of the standard. These results suggest that Yellow poplar wood has a good potential as a raw material for the production of PB and OSB.
Journal of The Korean Wood Science and Technology
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