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Vol.46 No.2 March 2018
46(2) 1-1, 2018
DOI: JANT Vol.46(No.2) 1-1, 2018
Aims and Scope
Secondary Metabolites with Anti-complementary Activity from the Stem Barks of Juglans mandshurica Maxim
Zi-jiang Li , Shilin Chen , Xiang-hao Yang , Rui Wang , Hee-jeong Min , Lei Wu , Chuan-ling Si , Young-soo Bae
46(2) 118-124, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.118 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 118-124, 2018
Juglans mandshurica is a fast growing hard species, which is a tree in family of Juglandaceae and has a wide distribution in China, Korea and eastern Russia. Plant materials from J. mandshurica have extensively been used in folk medicines to prevent or cure gastric, esophageal, lung and cardiac cancer. As one chain of our searching for anticomplementary agents from natural sources, two epimeric ellagitannins, [2,3-O-4,4′,5,5′,6,6′,-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP))-(α,β)-D-glucose] (I) and pedunculagin (II) were purified from 70% acetone extracts of the stem barks of J. mandshurica by Thin Layer Chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography approaches. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by MS, NMR, and a careful comparation with published literatures. The epimeric ellagitannins I and II exhibited inhibitory properties against a classical pathway of complementary system with 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC50) values of 65.3 and 47.7 μM, respectively, comparing with riliroside (IC50=104 μM) and rosmarinic acid (IC50=182 μM), which were used as positive controls. Thus, the work indicated both the two secondary metabolites possess excellent inhibitory activity and might be developed as potential anticomplementary chemicals.
Qualitative Anatomical Characteristics of Compression Wood, Lateral Wood, and Opposite Wood in a Stem of Ginkgo biloba L.
Byantara Darsan Purusatama , Yun-ki Kim , Woo Seok Jeon , Ju-ah Lee , Ah-ran Kim , Nam-hun Kim
46(2) 125-131, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.125 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 125-131, 2018
This study was conducted to understand and to compare the qualitative aspects of anatomical characteristics in compression wood (CW), lateral wood (LW), and opposite wood (OW) in a stem of Ginkgo biloba. The qualitative analysis was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. CW in Ginkgo biloba disks were dark brown in color, and the OW and LW were light brown in color. CW and OW showed abrupt transitions from earlywood to latewood, while LW showed a gradual transition. Cross sections of CW presented circular tracheids with angular outlines, many intercellular spaces, and varying sizes of lumens. Cross sections of LW and OW showed rectangular tracheids, fewer intercellular spaces, and varying sizes of lumens. In radial sections, CW showed an irregular arrangement of tracheids in earlywood, while LW and OW showed comparatively regular arrangements. Slit-like bordered pits on the tracheid cell wall, piceoid pits in the crossfield, and a few spiral checks were present in CW. LW and OW showed bordered pits with slightly oval-shaped apertures, as well as cuppresoid pits in the crossfields. Rays were primarily uniseriate, with few biseriate rays in the tangential sections of CW, LW, and OW. The tips of the tracheids were branched in CW but had a normal appearance in LW and OW.
Properties of Citric Acid-bonded Composite Board from Elephant Dung Fibers
Ragil Widyorini , Greitta Kusuma Dewi , Widyanto Dwi Nugroho , Tibertius Agus Prayitno , Agus Sudibyo Jati , Muhammad Nanang Tejolaksono
46(2) 132-142, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.132 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 132-142, 2018
An elephant digests only around 30~45% of what it consumes; therefore the undigested material mainly passes as intact fibres. Elephant food is usually composed of grass, leaves, twigs, bark, fruit and seed pods. This research aimed to utilize the elephant dung fibers as material for composite board and citric acid as a bonding agent. Citric acid contents in this research were set at 0 wt% (binderless composite board), 10 wt%, 20 wt%, and 30 wt% based on dry weight particles, while the target density was set at 0.8 g/cm3. Pressing temperatures were set at 180℃ and 200℃ with the pressing time was 10 minutes. Physical and mechanical properties tests were then performed according to Japanese Industrial Standard A 5905. The result showed that elephant dung fibers could be used as potential materials for composite board. Addition of citric acid and pressing temperature significantly increased the quality of composite board. Infrared analysis indicated that the presence of ester linkages much higher with the increasing of citric acid content and pressing temperature. The optimum properties of composite board made from elephant dung fibers could be achieved at pressing temperature of 200℃ and a citric acid content of 20 wt%.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Glued Laminated Lumber of Pine (Pinus merkusii) and Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba)
Andi Sri Rahayu Diza Lestari , Yusuf Sudo Hadi , Dede Hermawan , Adi Santoso
46(2) 143-148, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.143 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 143-148, 2018
The aim of this research was to determine the physical and mechanical properties of glued laminated lumber (glulam) made from jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba) and pine (Pinus merkusii). Three layers of lamina from each wood species were bonded using isocyanate adhesive with a glue spread of 280 g·m-2 and then pressed using cold press with a specific pressure of 1.47 MPa. Samples had dimensions of 3 cm×6 cm×100 cm (thickness, width, and length, respectively). Glulam properties were tested based on Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS) 234-2003. The results showed that the density of glulam was 0.36 g·cm-3 for jabon and 0.73 g·cm-3 for pine. The moisture content of all glulams fulfilled the JAS standard. The mechanical properties of pine glulam fulfilled the JAS standard in all tests, whereas jabon glulam fulfilled the standard in the modulus of rupture and shear tests.
Changes in Sound Absorption Capability and Air Permeability of Malas (Homalium foetidum) Specimens after High Temperature Heat Treatment
Chun-won Kang , Chengyuan Li , Eun-suk Jang , Sang-sik Jang , Ho-yang Kang
46(2) 149-154, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.149 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 149-154, 2018
The changes in sound absorption capability and air permeability of Malas wood after high temperature heat treatment were investigated. The average air permeability of Malas in longitudinal direction after heated under the temperature of 190℃ during 3 hours was about 23.48 darcys and that of control was about 3.11 darcys. The noise reduction coefficients of Malas specimens were 17% for treatment and 10% for control. The means of sound absorption coefficient of specimens in the frequency range of 50~6,400 Hz were 42% for treatment and 17% for control, respectively.
Effect of Particle Pre-Treatment on Properties of Jatropha Fruit Hulls Particleboard
Apri Heri Iswanto , Fauzi Febrianto , Yusuf Sudo Hadi , Surdiding Ruhendi , Dede Hermawan , Widya Fatriasari
46(2) 155-165, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.155 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 155-165, 2018
The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of particle pre-treatment on physical, mechanical, and durability of jatropha fruit hulls (JFH) particleboard. The pre-treatments included were immersing in cold water, hot water, and acetic acid solution. After each treatment, the particles were dried up to 3% moisture content. Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin was used to fabricate particleboards with board size, thickness and density target of 25 cm by 25 cm, 0.80 cm, and 0.70 g/cm3, respectively. Board pressed at 130℃ for 10 minutes, and 25 kg/cm2 pressure. The evaluation of particleboard followed the JIS A 5908-2003. Whilist their resistance to subterranean termite test (mass loss, mortality, antifeedant value and feeding rate) refers to the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006). The physical and mechanical properties of particleboards showed that all pre-treatments decreased the pH of particles. Overall, all particle immersing treatments resulted of better physical and mechanical properties of particleboard than those of untreated ones. The acetic acid treatment resulted the best physical and mechanical properties of particleboard. Based on the mass loss of JFH particleboard, hot water and acetic acid treated particleboards were classified into weak resistance to subterranean attack. The other two treatments were classified into very weak resistance. Hot water treated particleboard provided the highest mortality and antifeedant as much as 87.40% and 34.20%, respectively. Based on antifeedant classification, hot water treated particleboards were classified into moderately strong resistance, while other treatments were categorized into weak resistance. The lowest feeding rate value (45.30 μg/termite/day) was attained by hot water treatment.
Cytotoxic Evaluation of Plant Essential Oils in Human Skin and Lung Cells
Changhwan Ahn , Mi-jin Park , Jae-woo Kim , Jiyoon Yang , Sung-suk Lee , Eui-bae Jeung
46(2) 166-177, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.166 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 166-177, 2018
Plant essential oils are defined as fragrant volatile oils extracted from leaves, stems, fruits, flowers, and roots of a plant. Such oils are composed of multiple components and multiple functions. By accumulation of inductive information, various plant essential oils have been studied for using in therapeutic medicine for various diseases. Despite of the apparent advantages of essential oils as a source of therapeutic medicines, plant essential oils have many limitations, including cytotoxic side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the toxicity and the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of such oils. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity to human-derived cell lines of 10 plant essential oils provided by National Institute of Forest Science (i.e., Larix kaempferi; Abies holophylla; Zanthoxylum ailanthoides; Pinus parviflora; Tsuga sieboldti; Chamaecyparis pisifera; Cryptomeria japonica; Pinus densiflora; Illicium anisatum; Pinus thunbergii). Cytotoxicity evaluations were accomplished by using CCK-assays and PCR-based cytotoxicity-related marker gene analyses with A549 cell line, and the Detroit551 cell line which are lung and skin cell line. The genes were analyzed included caspase-3 has a role in cell apoptosis, and the other cyclinA, cyclinB, cyclinD, and cyclinE regulated cell cycling for the cell proliferation. By examining the five cytotoxicity-related marker genes by performing real-time PCR and examined the cytostatic gene regulation associated with the various essential oils. The results of this study showed that the degree of cytotoxicity and the cytostatic gene regulation which could give precious information for using the plant essential oil for the clinical usages.
Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Water Extract from Microwave Torrefied Oak Wood
Jeong Bin Nam , Geun Hye Oh , Seung Min Yang , Seok-eon Lee , Seog-goo Kang
46(2) 178-188, 2018
DOI:10.5658/WOOD.2018.46.2.178 JANT Vol.46(No.2) 178-188, 2018
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of water extract from torrefied oak wood as a natural antioxidant. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was assessed by employing different in vitro assays, including reducing power, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)], and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant potential) assays. The DPPH activity of the extract was increased in a dosedependent manner. Measurement of total flavonoid content of water extract from torrefied oak wood was achieved using an aluminum chloride colorimetric assay; the extract contained 192.12 mg/g flavonoid, which was significantly high when compared with standard quercetin. The results obtained in this study indicate that water extract from torrefied oak wood has significant potential for use as a natural antioxidant agent.
Journal of The Korean Wood Science and Technology
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